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Biochemical outcomes and toxicities in young men with prostate cancer after permanent iodine-125 seed implantation: Prospective cohort study in 6662 patients

Published:January 02, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2022.12.001

      Abstract

      PURPOSE

      We evaluated the effect of age, <60 and ≥60 years, on biochemical outcomes and toxicities in patients with prostate cancer who underwent permanent seed implantation (PI) ± external beam radiation therapy ± hormone therapy in a national Japanese prospective cohort study (J-POPS).

      METHODS AND MATERIALS

      The safety and efficacy analyses included 6721 and 6662 patients, respectively. We categorized patients into two age groups: <60 (n = 716) and ≥60 (n = 6,005) years. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the marginal effect of age on biochemical freedom from failure (bFFF) using a Phoenix definition and Cox proportional hazard models.

      RESULTS

      The median followup period was 60.0 months. Without PSM, men <60 years demonstrated similar 5-year bFFF (96.3%) compared with men ≥60 years (95.6%; p = 0.576); percent positive biopsies, biologically effective dose, Gleason score, risk classification, and supplemental external beam radiation therapy (p <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, 0.008, and <0.001) were significantly associated with bFFF while age was not (p = 0.576). With PSM, bFFF was not significantly different between age groups (p = 0.664); however, men <60 years showed a significantly lower incidence of declining erectile function, grade ≥2 all urinary toxicities, urinary frequency/urgency, and rectal bleeding (p <0.001, 0.024, 0.031, and 0.010) than men ≥60 years.

      CONCLUSIONS

      After PI, men <60 years achieved a comparable 5-year biochemical control rate and showed a lower incidence of several toxicities compared to men ≥60 years. This suggests that PI should be an excellent treatment option for men <60 years with prostate cancer.

      Keywords

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