Outcomes of 3D MRI based HDR brachytherapy with hybrid multichannel vaginal cylinder applicator and freehand needles for treatment of vaginal disease

Published:October 17, 2022DOI:


      Freehand needles can be used with multichannel vaginal cylinders (MCVC) to cover vaginal cancer >7 mm thick or with supra-vaginal extension. We report our institutional outcomes using this novel hybrid technique.
      Patients with vaginal malignancies treated with HDR BT using MCVC plus freehand needles from 2014-2021 at our institution were identified. Clinical characteristics, details of brachytherapy, initial response, and overall local control (LC) outcomes were recorded. LC was analyzed via Kaplan-Meier method.
      34 patients were identified with median follow-up 1.9 years. 19 patients had primary endometrial cancer with vaginal recurrence/disease, and remaining had primary vaginal cancer or other primaries. 7 patients had recurrence after previous RT course. 25 patients received EBRT with median dose 45 Gy in 25 fractions, and rest received BT alone. Median HR-CTV D90 for patients treated with EBRT plus BT was 77.4 Gy.
      30 patients had complete local response to BT on initial examination and/or follow-up imaging. 1 and 2-year LC rates in patients without prior RT treated with EBRT + BT were 94.1% and 94.1%, respectively. 1 and 2-year LC rates for those without prior RT were 88.1% and 76.4%, respectively. 1 and 2-year LC rates for those with prior RT were 68.6% and 34.3%, respectively. 1 patient had vaginal laceration requiring surgical repair, and 1 patient developed small bowel obstruction 1 month after BT, with no additional acute grade 3+ toxicities identified.
      Our approach with MCVC plus freehand needles with MRI-based planning was feasible and safe, with excellent initial local response and low rate of serious toxicities.


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