Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) is a profibrotic cytokine used as an early biomarker to develop radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). This study aimed to compare TGF-β1 serum levels in early-stage breast cancer patients treated with whole-breast radiation therapy (WBRT) plus boost versus accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy.
METHODS AND MATERIALS
This clinical trial study was conducted on 20 women with early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery candidate for adjuvant radiotherapy in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz, in 2021. In one group APBI with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (n = 10), the other group WBRT with external beam radiation plus boost (n = 10) was performed. Serum level of TGF-β1 was evaluated before radiotherapy, immediately after the end of radiotherapy and three months after the end of radiotherapy by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA).
Median serum TGF-β1 level before radiotherapy was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.971). In both APBI and WBRT groups, serum TGF-β1 levels significantly decreased immediately after radiotherapy compared to before treatment (p = 0.005 and p = 0.007, respectively); But three months after radiotherapy, serum TGF-β1 levels increased significantly in the WBRT group (40.50 to 77.41 pg/mL; p = 0.017), while no significant change was observed in the APBI group (24.75 to 30.50 pg/mL; p = 0.332).
Higher TGF-β1 values in the WBRT group after radiotherapy can be used as an early and vital biomarker in this treatment, and this data may corroborate links between TGF-beta1 and fibrosis and fibrosis rates between APBI and WBRT; It also shows the preference for using the brachytherapy technique in this group of patients. However, due to the small number of samples, definitive conclusions require further prospective studies.
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Published online: September 24, 2022
Accepted: August 18, 2022
Received in revised form: August 17, 2022
Received: June 29, 2022
Disclosures: The present article is taken from the dissertation of the specialized residency course in radiotherapy. This research was financially supported by a grant (No. CRC-0022) from the vice-chancellor for Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences research affairs.
© 2022 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.