Salvage image-guided freehand interstitial brachytherapy for pelvic sidewall recurrence after hysterectomy for uterine malignancies



      Pelvic sidewall recurrence after hysterectomy for uterine malignances has a poor prognosis, and the salvage therapy for this type of recurrence is still challenging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of freehand high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) through the perineum using transrectal ultrasonography for this disease.


      We retrospectively evaluated 42 patients with pelvic sidewall recurrence after hysterectomy for uterine cervical and endometrial cancers. We investigated patients' characteristics, the 2-year local control and survival rates, and late adverse events of the rectum and bladder.


      The 2-year overall survival, local control, and progression-free survival rates were 73.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 60.8–89.3%), 69.4% (95% CI, 55.4–80.1%), and 37.3% (95% CI, 24.6–56.5%), respectively. In Cox multivariate analysis, tumor size at recurrence (<45 mm vs. ≥45 mm) (p = 0.04) and disease-free periods after hysterectomy (<10 months vs. ≥10 months) (p < 0.01) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Lymph node metastasis at recurrence (p < 0.01) was also a significant prognostic factor for progression-free survival. Three patients experienced Grade 3–4 late proctitis (7%).


      Transperineal freehand salvage HDR-ISBT using transrectal ultrasonography was demonstrated to be a curative treatment option for patients with pelvic sidewall recurrence following hysterectomy. Based on the findings of this study, we emphasize the importance of HDR-ISBT for pelvic sidewall recurrence.


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