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Analysis of stereotactic radiation vs. wedge resection vs. wedge resection plus Cesium-131 brachytherapy in early stage lung cancer

      Abstract

      Purpose

      The purpose of the study was to evaluate the outcomes for wedge resection (WR), WR plus brachytherapy (WRB), or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small lung cancer.

      Methods and Materials

      Retrospectively collected data of patients treated with WR, WRB, or SBRT (1993–2012). Cesium-131 (Cs131) used in WRB group in patients with close or positive margins based on surgical assessment. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, log-rank test used to compare disease-free survival/overall survival between different groups. Multivariable analysis, using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, was performed to evaluate the independent effect of age, gender, and treatment procedure on disease-free survival.

      Results

      A total of 272 patients were included in the study (123 WR, 52 WR+Cs-131, 97 SBRT). Cs-131 was used with WRs that the surgeons deemed high risk. Local control (LC) was similar in the three groups and was achieved in 92.2% for WR group vs. 96.2% for WR+Cs-131 and 95.5% for SBRT (p = 0.60). On multivariate analysis, although females showed a higher LC, neither LC nor distant metastasis were associated with age or gender (p = 0.65 and p = 0.41, respectively). Five-year overall survival was 100% in the WR+B group, 97.7% in the WR group, and 89.6% in the SBRT group (p = 0.02). Toxicity was similar in the three groups.

      Conclusion

      WR, WR+ Cs-131, or SBRT are all excellent treatment options for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer that are not candidates for lobectomy. For high risk WRs, we favor use of Cesim-131 brachytherapy. Until a prospective randomized comparative study is done to evaluate the best treatment approach for early stage NSCLC, treatment selection should be based on a multidisciplinary team approach.

      Keywords

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